Biological Differences Between Males and Females

The main biological differences between males and females are the fertility and the reproductive organs. Males are continuously fertile from puberty due to the continuous production of sperms whereas females are fertile for 12 hours each month until menopause. Also, male reproductive organs include penis, scrotum, and testicles while female reproductive organs include vagina, uterus, and ovaries.

Males are obviously different from females in terms of their anatomy and physiology due to biological and genetic reasons. Most of these differences are due to the chemical reactions of hormones. 

Key Areas Covered

1. What are Special Biological Characteristics of Males
      – Reproductive System, Hormones, Fertility
2. What are Special Biological Characteristics of Females
      – Reproductive System, Hormones, Fertility
3. What are the Biological Similarities Between Males and Females
     – Outline of Common Features
4. What are the Biological Differences Between Males and Females
     – Comparison of Common Features

Key Terms: Estrogen, Females, Fertility, Males, Progesterone, Testosterone

Biological Differences Between Males and Females - Comparison Summary

What are the Special Biological Characteristics of Males

Males have male reproductive structures such as penis, scrotum, and testicles. They produce sperms, the male gametes, which are small and mostly motile. Also, they develop hair on the face at adolescence.

The main sex hormone in males is testosterone, which is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics in males. It is also necessary for the production of sperms in a process known as spermatogenesis, a continuous process from puberty throughout the life. 

Main Biological Differences - Males vs Females

Figure 1: Male Anatomy

Males have some amounts of estradiol produced by the conversion of testosterone into it.

What are Special Biological Characteristics of Females

Females only produce eggs, the female gametes, which are comparatively large and non-motile. They have a vagina, a uterus, and ovaries as reproductive structures. They develop a relatively rounded body and enlarged breasts. The two main sex hormones in females are estrogen and progesterone. They are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics in females. 

Biological Differences Between Males and Females

Figure 2: Female Reproductive Organs

Fertility of females is limited to a certain period of time in their life. Around 500,000 eggs are available by menarche.  With the menopause, they stop the release of eggs.

Biological Similarities Between Males and Females

  • The fertility process of both males and females is chemically-driven by means of hormones released from the hypothalamus.
  • Both males and females have estrogens.

Biological Differences Between Males and Females 

Reproductive Organs

Males: Have a penis, scrotum, and testicles

Females: Have a vagina, a uterus, and ovaries


Males: Continuously fertile from puberty due to the continuous production of sperms

Females: Fertile for 12 hours each month until menopause

Sex Hormones

Males: The main sex hormone is testosterone

Females: The main sex hormones are estrogen and progesterone


Males: Have fewer amounts of estrogen

Females: Have higher amounts of estrogen than males


Males: Have one X and one Y chromosome

Females: Have two X chromosomes

Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA

Males: Mitochondrial DNA of paternal origin does not pass to the next generation

Females: Mitochondrial DNA from maternal origin passes to the next generation

Size of the Brain

Males: Male brain is bigger

Females: Female brain is smaller than male brain


Males: Forehead is sloped

Females: Forehead is vertical

Eye Socket

Males: Have squarer eye sockets with blunt upper borders

Females: Have round eye sockets with sharp upper borders


Males: Face is thinner

Females: Face is broader

Vein Size

Males: Have large veins

Females: Have smaller veins

Fat Deposition

Males: Fat deposits around their organs

Females: Fat deposits around the abdomen as a ring


Males: Lose the ability to hear high-pitched sounds with age

Females: Lose the ability to hear low-pitched sounds with age

Distinguishing Colors

Males: The ability to distinguish between the shades of colors is less

Females: The ability to distinguish between color shades is high

Blood Flow

Males: The blood flow is evenly concentrated

Females: The blood flow is concentrated around the pelvic region


Males: Obtain more energy from anaerobic respiration

Females: Obtain more energy from aerobic respiration


Males are continuously fertile after puberty while females are fertile only for several hours per month and they become infertile with menopause. Males have male reproductive organs that produce male gametes called sperms while females have female reproductive organs that produce female gametes called eggs. The main biological differences between males and females are the fertility and the reproductive organs.


1. “Sex Differences in Humans.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Apr. 2018, .

Image Courtesy:

1. “Male anatomy Erect” via
2. “Scheme female reproductive system-en” By CDC, Mysid – Vectorized in Inkscape by User:Mysid from a CDC image (Public Domain) via

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things

Leave a Reply

Related pages

homophone homographaldosesphagocytosis definition in biologyfinding asymptotes of hyperboladutch shepherd vs belgian malinoiskinetic vs static frictiondefinition of anticodonethyl vs isopropyl rubbing alcoholsugar deoxyriboseancillary nursecalculation of cpi in indiaexamples of reflexive and intensive pronounsexample of climax in literatureamerican bulldog versus pitbulldoes sherbet contain lactosewhat is a consonants examplesdescribe the characteristics of traditional command and market economieswhat is the difference between cystitis and pyelonephritispail and paleagave definitionvowels and consonants differencedefine cyclic hydrocarbonssincerely yours or faithfully yourscompare series and parallel circuitswhat are meristematic tissuewhat is the difference between overdrive and distortionpoured fondant icingdefinition of relative permeabilitywhy is ayers rock importantdefine absorbancesorbet sherbetleopard panther jaguar differencebilateral symmetricalproperties of conductors and insulatorsdifference between a moth and a butterflydachshund pronouncedefination of reactancetheory of marxism in literaturediabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitusdifference between convex lens and convex mirrorhair smoothing and rebondingpositive vs normative economics definitionanalogies and metaphorsmeaning of literal and figurativepolarised light definitionmarxist criticism in literatureexamples of open syllableswhat is the difference between ultrasonic and infrasonicwhat does the literary device foreshadowing meantensional forcesphysical properties of alkanes and alkenesneurosis psychosiswhat is difference between invention and innovationdefine carbocationwhat is the difference between antique and vintagealligators and crocodiles differenceconsonance in literatureugly duckling short storywhat is the difference between meiosis and mitosispolar and nonpolar molecules definitionwhats the difference between ham and gammonwhat is protagonist and antagonist charactersgold foil rutherfordprepare bank reconciliation statement exampleoxymoron poetry definitionwhat is the difference between a spinal and epiduralimportance of archeologywhat is the hard icing on cakes calledwhat is the difference between ancillary and auxiliarybi annual meaningbipolar vs manic depressivechemical structure of deoxyribose