Difference Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline

Main Difference – 5 Dextrose vs Dextrose Saline

A dextrose solution is also known as an intravenous sugar solution. It is a mixture of dextrose and water. Dextrose is a sugar. Therefore, the solution is a sugar solution. It is called intravenous because it is administered into a vein or veins. 5 Dextrose is 5% dextrose where 100 mL of water is composed of 5 g dextrose dissolved in it. Hence, the percentage represents the strength of this sugar solution. Dextrose saline is a mixture of 5% dextrose with sodium chloride and water. The main difference between 5 dextrose and dextrose saline is that 5 dextrose does not contain sodium chloride whereas dextrose saline contains sodium chloride in its chemical composition.  

Key Areas Covered

1. What is 5 Dextrose
      – Definition, Chemical Composition, Uses
2. What is Dextrose Saline
      – Definition, Chemical Composition
3. What are the Similarities Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline
      – Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline
      – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms: Dextrose, Dextrose Saline, Hypotonic, Intravenous Sugar Solution, Isotonic, Pyrogenic, Sodium Chloride

Difference Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline - Comparison Summary

What is 5 Dextrose

5 dextrose is 5% dextrose which is a mixture of dextrose and water. It is an intravenous sugar solution. It contains 5g of dextrose dissolved per 100mL of water. Hence, it is an aqueous solution. It acts as an isotonic solution soon after taking into the body. But later it is converted into a hypotonic solution. That is because the dextrose sugar molecules are taken up by cells to metabolize. This reduces the amount of dextrose in the 5 dextrose, making it a hypotonic solution.

5 dextrose is nonpyrogenic. This means it does not increase body heat. This solution is considered as a parental fluid. This is because it is used to restore lost body fluid or to maintain the volume of body fluids. It also acts as a nutrient replenisher. Since dextrose is a sugar (a carbohydrate), it can be used as a nutrient by acting as a source of calories.

Main Difference - 5 Dextrose vs Dextrose Saline

Figure 1: Route of Administration for 5 dextrose

5% dextrose is used to treat hypoglycemia, insulin shock, dehydration due to fluid loss, etc. It is also given to patients who are unable to eat because of illnesses or injuries, etc.

What is Dextrose Saline

Dextrose saline is a mixture of dextrose, sodium chloride, and water. It contains 5% dextrose and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The sodium chloride content may vary depending on the application. This solution is a sterile solution administered into veins (intravenous administration).

Dextrose saline is used to replace lost body fluids and as an electrolyte replenishment. Therefore, it is also considered as a parental fluid.  The most common combination is 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride. Here, 100 mL of water is composed of 5 g of dextrose along with 0.45 g of sodium chloride.

Difference Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline

Figure 2: Dextrose Saline

This solution is hypertonic. This means it has a high osmotic pressure. Therefore, when it is taken into the body, it can provide cells with carbohydrates, water, and electrolytes. Sodium chloride occurs in the form of sodium ion (Na+) ions and chloride ions (Cl) ions. Sodium ion is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid in cells. Chloride ions are useful for cells to maintain the buffering action. Therefore, dextrose saline is very important as a source of these ions.

Similarities Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline

  • Both are nonpyrogenic and sterile.
  • Both are administered to the vein.
  • Both are good sources of carbohydrates.
  • Both are composed of dextrose.

Difference Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline

Definition

5 Dextrose: 5 dextrose is 5% dextrose which is a mixture of dextrose and water.

Dextrose: Dextrose saline is a mixture of dextrose, sodium chloride, and water.

Chemical Composition

5 Dextrose: 5 dextrose is composed of dextrose and water.

Dextrose: Dextrose saline is composed of dextrose, sodium chloride, and water.

Type

5 Dextrose: 5 dextrose is isotonic and then hypotonic.

Dextrose: Dextrose saline is hypertonic.

Importance

5 Dextrose: 5 dextrose act as a carbohydrate supply and provide calories.

Dextrose: Dextrose saline can act as a source of electrolytes.

Conclusion

5 Dextrose and dextrose saline are intravenous sugar solutions administered to the vein. These solutions are very helpful in the replacement of body fluids and as carbohydrate sources. The main difference between 5 dextrose and dextrose saline is the presence or absence of sodium chloride

References:

1. “D5W (Dextrose 5% Water) IV Fluid.” RNpedia, 8 Aug. 2017, .
2. “Dextrose 5% in water Uses, Side Effects & Warnings.” Drugs.com, .
3. “Dextrose 5% in 0.9% Sodium Chloride (Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Inj): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses.” RxList, .
4. “5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, .

Image Courtesy:

1. “Intradermal injection” By British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT). via
2. “834152” (Public Domain) via

About the Author: Madhusha

Madhusha is a BSc (Hons) graduate in the field of Biological Sciences and is currently pursuing for her Masters in Industrial and Environmental Chemistry. Her interest areas for writing and research include Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry.

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