Difference Between Golgi Bodies and Mitochondria

Main Difference – Golgi Bodies vs Mitochondria

Golgi bodies and mitochondria are vital organs found in the eukaryotic cells. Golgi bodies are made up a series of folded membranes. They are a part of the endomembrane system of the cell. Mitochondria are bean-shaped organelles surrounded by double membranes. The surface of the inner membrane is increased by the membrane folds known as cristae. The main difference between Golgi bodies and mitochondria is that Golgi bodies direct the flow of substances such as proteins to their destinations whereas mitochondria provide a location for the rearmost events of aerobic respiration.  

Key Areas Covered

1. What are Golgi Bodies
     – Definition, Structure, Function
2. What are Mitochondria
     – Definition, Structure, Function
3. What are the Similarities Between Golgi Bodies and Mitochondria
     – Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Golgi Bodies and Mitochondria
     – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms: Aerobic Respiration, Cristae, Eukaryotic Cells, Golgi Bodies, Membrane-Bound Organelles, MAM, Mitochondria, Porins, Translocase

Difference Between Golgi Bodies and Mitochondria - Comparison Summary

What are Golgi Bodies

Golgi bodies or Golgi Apparatus refer to a complex of vesicles and folded membranes inside the eukaryotic cells. The flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs are called cisternae. Golgi bodies provide a site for the syntheses of carbohydrates like pectin and hemicellulose. Glycosaminoglycans, which are found in the extracellular matrix of the animal cells, are also synthesized in the Golgi bodies. Golgi bodies receive proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further processing and sorting of proteins take place inside Golgi bodies. These proteins are transported to their destinations, plasma membrane, lysosomes or secretions. The structure of a Golgi body is shown in figure 1.

Difference Between Golgi Bodies and Mitochondria

Figure 1: Golgi and Rough ER

The most significant features of the Golgi body is its distinct polarity. Two faces can be identified in Golgi: cis face and trans face. Proteins enter the Golgi at the cis face while the exit of them occur at the trans face. The cis face is the convex of the Golgi body, and it is oriented towards the nucleus. The concave of the Golgi is its trans face.  

What are Mitochondria

Mitochondria refer to the organelles found in large numbers in some cells in which the biochemical processes of the aerobic respiration take place. The number of mitochondria present in a particular cell depends on the cell type, tissue, and organism. The citric acid cycle, which is the second step of the cellular respiration, occurs in the matrix of mitochondria. ATP is produced in the oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs at the inner membrane of mitochondria. The structure of a mitochondrion is shown in figure 2.

Main Difference - Golgi Bodies vs Mitochondria

Figure 1: Mitochondria

Mitochondria are bean-shaped organelles separated from the cytoplasm by double membranes; inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The inner mitochondrial membrane forms fold into the matrix called cristae. Cristae increase the surface area of the inner membrane. The inner mitochondrial membrane consists of more than 151 different protein types, functioning in many ways. It lacks porins; the type of translocase in the inner membrane is called as TIC complex. The intermembrane space is situated between inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The outer mitochondrial membrane contains a large number of integral membrane proteins called porins. Translocase is an outer membrane protein. The translocase-bound N-terminal signal sequence of large proteins allows the protein to enter into mitochondria. The association of mitochondrial outer membrane with endoplasmic reticulum forms a structure called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER-membrane). MAM allows the transport of lipids between mitochondria and the ER through calcium signalling.

The space enclosed by the two mitochondrial membranes is called the matrix. Mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes with numerous enzymes are suspended in the matrix. Mitochondrial DNA is a circular molecule. The size of the DNA is around 16 kb, encoding 37 genes. Mitochondria may contain 2-10 copies of its DNA in the organelle.

Similarities Between Golgi Bodies and Mitochondria

  • Both Golgi bodies and mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotic cells.
  • Both Golgi bodies and mitochondria play a vital role in the cell.

Difference Between Golgi Bodies and Mitochondria

Definition

Golgi Bodies: Golgi bodies refer to a complex of vesicles and folded membranes inside the eukaryotic cells.

Mitochondria: Mitochondria are a type of organelles in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.

Number

Golgi Bodies: Animal cells contain a few large Golgi bodies while plant cells contain many small Golgi bodies inside cells.

Mitochondria: The number of mitochondria present in a particular cell depends on the cell type, tissue, and organism. Human liver cells contain 1000-2000 mitochondria.

Structure

Golgi Bodies:  Golgi bodies are made up a series of membranous stacks.

Mitochondria: Mitochondria are bean-shaped organelles surrounded by double membranes.

Components

Golgi Bodies: Golgi bodies are composed of cisternae, tubules, vesicles, and Golgian vacuoles.

Mitochondria: The inner membrane of the mitochondria consists of finger-like inward projections called cristae.

Enclosing Membranes

Golgi Bodies: A Golgi body is enclosed by a single membrane.

Mitochondria: A mitochondrion is enclosed by double membranes.

Function

Golgi Bodies: Golgi bodies direct the flow of substances such as proteins to their destinations.

Mitochondria: Mitochondria provide a location for the rearmost events of the aerobic respiration.  

Significance

Golgi Bodies: Golgi bodies are the secretory organ of the cell.

Mitochondria: Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell.

DNA

Golgi Bodies: Golgi bodies lack their own DNA.

Mitochondria: Mitochondria consist of a circular DNA molecule inside the organelle.

Ribosomes

Golgi Bodies: Golgi bodies lack ribosomes inside the organelle.

Mitochondria: Mitochondria contain ribosomes.

Conclusion

Golgi bodies and mitochondria are vital organelles inside the eukaryotic cells. The maturation and transportation of molecules to their destinations take place inside the Golgi bodies. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell that carries out biochemical reactions of the aerobic respiration, producing ATP. The main difference between Golgi bodies and mitochondria is the role they play in the cell.

Reference:

1.Cooper, Geoffrey M. “The Golgi Apparatus.” The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970, .
2.Cooper, Geoffrey M. “Mitochondria.” The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970, .

Image Courtesy:

1. “0314 Golgi Apparatus a en” By   – Version 8.25 from the TextbookOpenStax Anatomy and PhysiologyPublished May 18, 2016 via
2. “Mitochondrion structure” By Kelvinsong; modified by Sowlos – Own work based on: Mitochondrion mini.svg via

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things

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