Difference Between Manganese and Magnesium

Main Difference – Manganese vs Magnesium

A chemical element is a chemical species that represent the atoms having the same number of protons in the nucleus of their atoms. All chemical elements that have been discovered so far are placed in the periodic table of elements. This periodic table of elements show the chemical elements according to the ascending order of their number of protons in the nucleus. Manganese and magnesium are such chemical elements. Manganese has 25 protons in its atom. Magnesium has 12 protons in its atom. Manganese and magnesium have different chemical and physical properties. Their occurrence is also different from each other. However, the main difference between manganese and magnesium is that the melting point of manganese is about 1246oC, which is a very high value whereas the melting point of magnesium is about 650oC, which is comparatively a lower value than that of manganese.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is Manganese
      – Definition, Properties, and Reactions
2. What is Magnesium
      – Definition, Properties, and Reactions
3. What is the Difference Between Manganese and Magnesium
      – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms: Atomic Number, Electronegativity, Magnesium, Manganese, Protons

Difference Between Manganese and Magnesium - Comparison Summary

What is Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element given by the symbol Mn. The atomic number of manganese is 25. Therefore, it is composed of 25 protons in its nucleus. The atomic weight of Manganese is about 54.93 amu. The electron configuration of Manganese is given as [Ar]3d54s2. Therefore, Manganese belongs to the group 7 in the d block of the periodic table. Manganese is a d block element. It is considered as a transition metal.

Difference Between Manganese and Magnesium_Figure 1

Figure 1: Manganese Atomic Structure

At standard temperature and pressure conditions, Manganese is in the solid phase. The melting point of manganese is about 1246oC. It is a very high value. Manganese can exist in several oxidation states in compounds. The oxidation states vary from +7 to -3. The electronegativity of manganese is given as 1.55. The atomic radius of manganese is about 127 pm due to the presence of d orbitals.

Manganese is considered as a paramagnetic compound. That is due to the presence of unpaired electrons in its orbitals. At room temperature and pressure, manganese is a very hard and brittle metal. Furthermore, manganese has several natural and synthetic isotopes. But 54Mn is the 100% stable and abundant isotope whereas other isotopes are found in very trace amounts.

Since manganese can have several different oxidation states, it can be found in various types of solid and liquid compounds in different oxidation states. One most common compound is KMnO4 (potassium permanganate). It is in dark violet color when it is a solid, and it can easily be dissolved in water forming MnO4 ions. This solution also has a deep purple color. Here, the manganese atom is in +7 oxidation state, which is the highest oxidation state manganese can have.

Main Difference - Manganese vs Magnesium

Figure 2: Potassium Permanganate Solid Compound

Manganese is used in the production of steel. The role of Manganese in steel production is to act as a deoxidizing and alloying agent. Moreover, Manganese is used in the production of aluminum alloys. Apart from that, manganese is useful in many chemical species that are needed in laboratory scale applications.

What is Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element having the symbol Mg. It is placed in the group 2, period 3 of the periodic table of the elements. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. That means magnesium has 12 protons in the nucleus. At room temperature and pressure conditions, Magnesium is in solid phase. The electron configuration of magnesium is [Ne]3s2. Therefore, it can have 0 and +2 oxidation states.

Difference Between Manganese and Magnesium

Figure 3: Magnesium Crystals

The melting point of Magnesium is about 650oC. The atomic mass of Magnesium is given as 24 amu. It is in the s block of the periodic table. Magnesium and other elements in the same group are considered as alkaline earth metals. This is because the oxides they form have basic characteristics. The electronegativity of Magnesium is about 1.31. The atomic radius of Magnesium is about 160 pm.

Magnesium has three stable isotopes. The most abundant isotope is 24Mg. Its abundance is about 79%. But magnesium also has radioactive isotopes. Magnesium can react with water at room temperature. This reaction forms magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas bubbles are evolved from water during this reaction. Magnesium can also react with many acids, forming the Mg+2 ion and hydrogen gas. Magnesium is highly flammable. It can burn in air, resulting in a very shiny white flame.

Difference Between Manganese and Magnesium_Figure 4

Figure 4: Burning Magnesium in Air

Magnesium can be mainly found in mineral deposits. Such minerals are dolomite and magnesite. Sea water also has a considerable amount of magnesium ions dissolved in it. Magnesium has wide applications as a metal, especially in aircraft designing, and automotive designing.

Difference Between Manganese and Magnesium

Definition

Manganese: Manganese is a chemical element given by the symbol Mn.

Magnesium: Magnesium is a chemical element having the symbol Mg.

Atomic Number

Manganese:  The atomic number of manganese is 25.

Magnesium: The atomic number of magnesium is 12.

Atomic Weight

Manganese: The atomic weight of manganese is about 54 amu.

Magnesium: The atomic weight of magnesium is about 24 amu.

Melting Point

Manganese: The melting point of manganese is about 1246oC.

Magnesium: The melting point of magnesium is about 650oC.

Atomic Radius

Manganese: Atomic radius of manganese is about 127 pm.

Magnesium: Atomic radius of magnesium is about 160 pm.

location in the Periodic Table

Manganese: Manganese is in the d block of the periodic table of elements.

Magnesium: Magnesium is in the s block of the periodic table of elements.

Electron Configuration

Manganese: The electron configuration of manganese is [Ar]3d54s2

Magnesium: The electron configuration of magnesium is [Ne]3s2

Electronegativity

Manganese:  Electronegativity of manganese is about 1.55

Magnesium:  Electronegativity of magnesium is about 1.31

Oxidation States

Manganese: Manganese can have oxidation states from -3 to +7.

Magnesium: Magnesium can have 0 and +2 oxidation states.

Conclusion

Manganese and magnesium are chemical elements that are abundantly found on the earth’s crust. Both of them are metals. Although the two names are a little bit confusing, they show very distinct physical and chemical properties. The main difference between manganese and magnesium is that the melting point of manganese is about 1246oC which is a very high value whereas the melting point of magnesium is about 650oC which is comparatively a lower value than that of manganese.

References:

1. Libretexts. “Chemistry of Magnesium (Z=12).” Chemistry LibreTexts, Libretexts, 21 July 2016, . Accessed 21 Aug. 2017.
2. “Manganese.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Aug. 2017, . Accessed 21 Aug. 2017.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Electron shell 025 Manganese” via
2. “Potassium-permanganate-sample” By Benjah-bmm27 – Own work (Public Domain) via
3. “Magnesium crystals” By Warut Roonguthai – Own work via
4. “Magburn1.” By Yannickcosta1 – Yannick McCabe-Costa via

About the Author: Madhusha

Madhusha is a BSc (Hons) graduate in the field of Biological Sciences and is currently pursuing for her Masters in Industrial and Environmental Chemistry. Her interest areas for writing and research include Biochemistry and Environmental Chemistry.

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